دایره المعارف تاسیسات برق (اطلاعات عمومی برق)
How to Make Battery Cables
This is my basic guide to making battery cables. You will need the following:
Adhesive heat shrink - $2-4 / ft
Battery lugs - $1-3 each
Welding cable - $1-3 / ft
Welding cable cutters - $22
Hex crimpers - $90 (and up) for hex crimpers, $18 for a hammer crimper
(See more on these below)
Heat gun - $30-60
Lots of EV and solar power suppliers sell the heat shrink, lugs, and cable. You might find them at your local hardware store, electronics store, or welding supply.
Cable sutters and heat gun are common hardware store items.
You can get the job done with cheaper tools, or things you already have. There are lots of ideas out on the web (or see the FAQ). I'm just going to cover the basics of how I make cables.
Adhesive heat shrink is like normal heat shrink, but it has glue on the inside that melts and makes a tight seal. You can get different colors to color code the cable ends.
The lug above is a QuickCable Magna lug. You could use cheaper copper lugs, but the Magnas are very high quality and tinned so they won't corrode. I'm using 2/0 cable with a matching lug and 3/4" heat shrink.
For a sense of scale, these are about 2 feet long and around 15 lb.
Hex crimpers make a very neat and strong hexagonal crimp. (This is the only way to make UL listed crimps with Magna lugs.)
The jaws rotate for different size cables. The sizes are marked in mm^2. Go here to convert from mm^2 to AWG. (2/0 is 70 mm^2).
You'll also need a heat gun. I have one made by Ryobi, and it works great. It helps to be able to adjust the temperature from 250-1000 deg F.
There is a little attachment at the end that reflects the hot air for doing heat shrink.
First thing to do is cut your cable to the right length. Remember, measure twice, cut once.
Next, you want to use the same cutters to trim away the insulation. Rotate the cable through the cutter until you slice through the insulation, then twist the cutters to pull the insulation off the end.
You could also use a utility knife, but I find the cutters are easier. Don't worry if you take out a few strands of wire, but make sure you don't take off more than a few.
There should be just enough bare cable to fit into the lug.
Now put the lug into the jaws of the hex crimper and get it lined up. Insert the cable, making sure all the strands go into the lug.
On these lugs, there is room for two crimps, so I make one near the open end and another further up.
Make the crimp. I find it is easiest to rest one arm of the crimper on a table then use my weight to push down the other handle.
It takes a lot of force. You are actually cold welding the cable inside the lug.
When the crimps are done, they should look like this.
Since the Magna lugs are so thick, some material squeezes out of the side. I file this off so that it doesn't stick out.
Next, cut a piece of heat shrink long enough to go over the lug and about 3/4" down the cable. Put the heat shrink over the end.
If you can, set the heat gun on a table pointed up. Insert the cable with the heat shrink in place. I put my heat gun at about 400-500 deg for big thick heat shrink.
Keep heating until you see the adhesive melt and squeeze out of the ends. Move the cable around so that adhesive evenly squeezes out of both ends all the way around.
When done, the lug end should look like this. Note the adhesive that has made a ring around the ends of the heat shrink.
That's it! You've just made a pro quality battery cable.
As an aside, this is what the lug looks like inside. On the left, I cut the lug at the crimp. On the right is a fresh lug. Notice how the crimped lug basically looks like a solid chunk of copper?
It's hard to see in the picture, but even with a magnifying glass you can't make out where the lug and the cable met. It's been totally welded into a solid chunk.
|Conductor||Stranded copper conductor, Class 2 to BS 6460, IEC 60228.|
|Insulation||XLPE (Cross-Linked Polyethylene) Type GP 8 or ethylene propylene rubber (GP 6)|
|Colour Code||3 Cores: Brown, Black, Grey|
|Bedding||PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)|
|Protection||LC (Lead alloy 'E') sheathed|
|Inner Sheath||PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride)|
|Armour||Multi Core: SWA (Steel Wire Armour)|
|Outer Sheath||PVC(Polyvinyl Chloride)|
Technical Information :
|Temperature rating||0°C to +90°C|
|Bending radius||12 x overall diameter|
|Flame retardant||IEC60332 part 1, BS4066 part 1|
Cable Parameter :
|Nominal Cross-sectional Area||Strand Type||Nominal Insulation thickness||Nominal Lead sheath thickness||Nominal Inner Sheath thickness||Nominal Steel Wire Armor dia.||Nominal Outer Sheath thickness||Approx. Overall Diameter||Aprrox Weight|
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